The word cereal is derived from ceres, the Roman Goddess of grain. The common cereal crops are rice, wheat, corn, oats and rye. The term cereal is not limited to these but also flours, meals, breads and alimentary pastes or pasta. Cereal science is a study concerned with all technical aspects of cereal. It is the study the nature of the cereals and the changes that occurs naturally and as a result of handling and processing.

Monday, September 14, 2020

Malting barley for brewing

Malt barley is one of the principal ingredients in the manufacture of beer. Brewers can either purchase malt barley to manufacture malt themselves or purchase malt from malting companies.

Malting of the barley grain to produce pale malt involves the imbibing of the barley with water (steeping) to a moisture content of 42–46%, a period of metabolic and physiological activity after germination and finally kilning with increasingly hot air to dry the malt to approximately 5% moisture, thus ceasing metabolic activity.

Malting is defined as the controlled germination of cereals, to ensure a given physical and biochemical change within the grain, which is then stabilized by grain drying. It is a process of forced germination, conducted in order to degrade starch molecules and to obtain certain levels of amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes which are important in brewing.

Three process steps are necessary to ensure that these changes occur:
*Steeping, to ensure good absorption of water by the grain (from 12% to at least 40% of moisture);
*Germination, to maintain embryo growth, enzyme synthesis and a limited endosperm breakdown; and
*Kilning, to ensure product stability.

Malting ensures the accumulation and release of a number of malt enzymes that degrade starch (αamylase, β-amylase, limit dextrinase, and α-glucosidase), cell wall non-starch polysaccharides (β-glucanase and xylanases), lipids (lipase and lipoxygenase), and enzymes that degrade and release proteins (endo-proteinases and exo-proteinases).
Malting barley for brewing

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