The word cereal is derived from ceres, the Roman Goddess of grain. The common cereal crops are rice, wheat, corn, oats and rye. The term cereal is not limited to these but also flours, meals, breads and alimentary pastes or pasta. Cereal science is a study concerned with all technical aspects of cereal. It is the study the nature of the cereals and the changes that occurs naturally and as a result of handling and processing.

Saturday, October 02, 2021

Hard wheat flour - high in gluten

The vast majority of today's flour consumption is wheat flour. Wheat varieties are typically known as "hard" or "strong" if they have high gluten content. Flours milled from hard wheat kernels are creamy or creamy white in color. They feel slightly gritty and granular, because the hardness of the kernel makes them difficult to mill.

Hard flour, or "bread" flour, is high in gluten and so forms a certain toughness which holds its shape well once baked. The gluten proteins consist of monomeric gliadins and polymeric glutenins. Gluten proteins consist of two main fractions according to their solubility in aqueous alcohols: the soluble gliadins and the insoluble glutenins.

Glutenins and gliadins are recognized as the major wheat storage proteins, constituting about 60-85% of the total grain proteins and they tend to be rich in asparagine, glutamine, arginine or proline.

Gluten proteins play a key role in determining the unique baking quality of wheat by conferring water absorption capacity, cohesivity, viscosity and elasticity on dough.

According to the study, sugar-snap cookies made from hard wheat flours are quite different from those made with soft wheat flours. Cookies made from hard wheat flour are thick, hard, and small in diameter whereas soft wheat flour are thin, tender, and have a large diameter.
Hard wheat flour - high in gluten

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