The word cereal is derived from ceres, the Roman Goddess of grain. The common cereal crops are rice, wheat, corn, oats and rye. The term cereal is not limited to these but also flours, meals, breads and alimentary pastes or pasta. Cereal science is a study concerned with all technical aspects of cereal. It is the study the nature of the cereals and the changes that occurs naturally and as a result of handling and processing.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Carbohydrate content in rice

Rice contributes to the major dietary energy for body. It is a main carbohydrate source in many Asian countries. It provides 23 per cent more calories of energy than that provided by wheat and maize crops. It is usually consumed as a whole grain after cooking, and in a regular Asian diet, can contribute for 40 to 80per cent of the total calorie intake.

Over 2 billion people in Asia alone derive of their energy needs from rice, which contains 80% carbohydrates, 7–8% protein, 3% fat, and 3% fibre.

Available carbohydrates, mainly starch, are higher in milled rice than in brown rice. Carbohydrate foods are important vehicles carrying proteins, micronutrients and other food components.

Rice is a great source of complex carbohydrates. Starch is the most common form of carbohydrates in foods, made up of long chains of glucose known as amylose and amylopectin. Amylose and amylopectin have different properties that may contribute to both the texture and digestibility of rice.

Carbohydrates are broken down to glucose, most of which is used as energy for exercise and as essential fuel for the brain slow starch digestion (with low glycemic index), attributed to a high proportion of amylase and the size and structure of the starch granules.

Foods with a high glycemic index have been associated with increased risk of type-2 diabetes, because they are rapidly digested and can cause dramatic increase in blood sugar levels. GI is a widely accepted measure of the effect of carbohydrate foods including rice on human health.

In Asian population (Chinese and Japanese), the higher consumption of white rice is associated with a significantly increased risk of type II diabetes.
Carbohydrate content in rice
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