The word cereal is derived from ceres, the Roman Goddess of grain. The common cereal crops are rice, wheat, corn, oats and rye. The term cereal is not limited to these but also flours, meals, breads and alimentary pastes or pasta. Cereal science is a study concerned with all technical aspects of cereal. It is the study the nature of the cereals and the changes that occurs naturally and as a result of handling and processing.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Wheat gluten protein

Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide, in terms of production and utilization. It is a major source of energy, protein, and dietary fibre in human nutrition and animal feeding. The ability of wheat flour to be processed into different foods is largely determined by the proteins.

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) produces one-seeded fruits, which are called grains or kernels. The pleasant flavor, long shelf-life and unique gluten forming characteristics of wheat products like pasta, noodles, bread, chapatti etc. make them very attractive among other cereals.

The wheat gluten proteins are known as the storage proteins that are found in the starchy endosperm of the grains. These proteins play a major role in the bread manufacture.

Wheat gluten is a protein that has unique properties. When hydrated and mixed, it forms a very extensible, elastic structure that is responsible for the gas-holding ability of bread dough.

Gluten comprises some 75% protein on a dry weight basis, with most of the remainder being starch and lipids. Their biological function is to provide carbon, nitrogen and energy sources for seed germination and seedling growth.

The two distinct groups of the gluten polymer that were classified reflected their solubility in 70% ethanol, namely glutenins and gliadins. The gliadins are single polypeptide chains and the glutenins are comprising polymers with subunits linked by disulphide bonds, is particularly important. Glutenins and gliadins are recognized as the major wheat storage proteins, constituting about 60-85% of the total grain proteins and they tend to be rich in asparagine, glutamine, arginine or proline but very low in nutritionally important amino acids lysine, tryptophan and methionine.

Wheat prolamins are the major storage proteins present in the starchy endosperm cells of the grain, where they are synthesized and deposited via the secretory system. Prolamins are high content of the amino acids, proline and glutamine.

The non-prolamin proteins; albumins and globulins of wheat, comprises 15-20% of total wheat flour proteins. Albumins are soluble in water and globulins are soluble in salts.

Recent discoveries found that wheat gluten can be processed into texturized vegetable protein for meat application. The popularity of texturized vegetable proteins that contain wheat proteins is rapidly increasing.
Wheat gluten protein

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